Vol 4-3 Research Article

Perceptions of Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI) Among Professionals Providing Drug and Alcohol Addiction Treatment

Jerrod Brown1,2,3*, Diane Harr1

1Concordia University, St. Paul, MN, USA

2Pathways Counseling Center, Inc., St. Paul, MN, USA

3American Institute for the Advancement of Forensic Studies, St. Paul, MN, USA

Traumatic brain injuries (TBI) are a major community health problem in the United States. Traumatic brain injury can result in disruption to normal brain functions and is caused by a bump, blow, or external damage to the head. Ranging from mild to severe in nature, TBIs can result in physical, cognitive, emotional, social, personality, adaptive, and behavioral changes in an individual. These devastating symptoms contribute to individuals with TBIs having the potential for a host of short and long-term issues. Traumatic brain injury can result in cognitive impairments, including disinhibition and risky decision-making behaviors, thus increasing the risk of substance abuse. Because many people do not have visible or physical signs, TBI can be difficult to screen, assess, and diagnose. Despite these difficulties, mental health and substance use disorder professionals can make a positive difference for clients with traumatic brain injury. As such, the current study examines the experiences and perceptions of TBI among treatment staff of Vinland National Center, a substance use disorder treatment facility in Minnesota. Results of this study raise awareness of the challenges of TBI in drug and alcohol treatment centers and offer tips, strategies, and solutions for professionals working with this clientele.

DOI: 10.29245/2572.942X/2019/3.1248 View / Download Pdf
Vol 4-3 Research Article

Frequency-Specific Biomarkers in Neurodegenerative Disorders: Implications of Alpha and Beta Oscillations in Motor Behaviour

Rémy Cohan2,8, Karolina A. Bearss1,2,4,6, Joseph F.X. DeSouza1-8

1Centre for Vision Research, York University, Canada

2Department of Psychology, York University, Canada

3Department of Biology, York University, Canada

4Neuroscience Graduate Diploma Program, York University, Canada

5Interdisciplinary Graduate Studies, York University, Canada

6Canadian Action and Perception Network (CAPnet), York University, Canada

7Vision: Science to Applications (VISTA) Program, York University, Canada

8Multisensory Neuroscience Laboratory, York University, Canada

Despite advancement in neuroimaging, the link between motor and cognitive processes, and the role of oscillations in motor behaviour remain unclear. Current research in neurodegenerative disorders (e.g., Parkinson’s and Alzheimer’s disease) indicates that changes in oscillatory brain rhythms (OBRs) observed from electroencephalographic (EEG) studies could be utilized to quantify and understand the neural network changes in the presence of pathology. Research suggests, that rhythmicity is a common feature amongst biological entities, and cyclic fluctuations in neurological systems in response to incoming stimuli from the environment, grant a great degree of flexibility to such systems in order to interact with their surroundings at an optimal level. This reciprocity between exogenous stimuli and endogenous mechanisms in the brain creates a two-way pathway that awards a bi-directional relationship between the environment, and the brain. Here, in this mini review we explore the role of OBRs, and review the current literature supporting the putative role of frequency-specific OBRs as potential biomarkers in neurodegenerative disorders, mainly Parkinson’s disease (PD), which in turn, may allow clinicians to identify effective therapies based on these biomarkers, expanding the armamentarium for delaying the rate of disease progression and symptom management.

DOI: 10.29245/2572.942X/2019/3.1207 View / Download Pdf